Cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) is a condition in which one or both testicles not descended into the scrotum. Undescended testicle may remain in the abdominal cavity or stop at any step of the way into the scrotum, as well as to deviate from the normal way; they find themselves in a surface pocket of the inguinal canal, the perineum, or upper thigh. Most often, cryptorchidism observed in preterm infants.
Causes of cryptorchidism associated with two main factors. This is mechanical obstruction and delays testicular migration routes and dysfunction of the endocrine glands of mother and fetus that regulate development.
Classification of states associated with the absence of one or both testicles in the scrotum may be used depending on the location of testicles as follows: abdominal cryptorchidism (10%) – testicle is located proximal to the internal inguinal ring into the abdominal cavity. Inguinal (groin), cryptorchidism – testicle is located in the inguinal canal between the external and internal inguinal ring. Ectopia testis (5%) – testicle is located distal to the internal inguinal ring, but outside its normal path descended into the scrotum. Most often testicle found in the groin (inguinal ectopia), in the crotch on my thigh (femur ectopia), at the root of the penis, over the bosom, and, occasionally, in the opposite half of the scrotum.
Wandering testicle (cryptorchidism false) is strictly speaking, not a manifestation of cryptorchidism. The testis is usually defined in sub inguinal or pre scrotal area and can be effortlessly moved back into the scrotum.
Treatment of cryptorchidism may be a therapeutic or surgical. The goal of treatment of cryptorchidism is to restore normal testicular position before the 2-year life of the child, as if in 2 years testicle not descended into the scrotum, an irreversible disruption of spermatogenesis.